Enhancing Knowledge Capture in Hospitals: A Strategy for Sharing and Making Tacit Knowledge Explicit


Knowledge management plays a crucial role in hospitals, particularly when it comes to introducing newly hired nurses to the proper policies and procedures for patient care. This paper outlines a comprehensive strategy for capturing knowledge using the SECI model, which focuses on socialization, externalization, combination, and internalization. Additionally, the process of sharing knowledge through social interaction and observation, as well as making tacit knowledge explicit, will be explored. By implementing effective knowledge capture practices, hospitals can facilitate continuous learning and improve patient care outcomes.

SECI Model: A Strategy for Knowledge Capture

Socialization involves the exchange of knowledge through direct social interaction and sharing experiences. To capture knowledge effectively, hospitals can establish formal and informal channels for collaboration and communication among nurses. This can include regular team meetings, mentoring programs, and communities of practice, where experienced nurses can share their expertise and insights with newly hired nurses (Davenport & Prusak, 2019). These socialization efforts create an environment where knowledge flows freely, fostering a culture of continuous learning and professional development.


Externalization focuses on converting tacit knowledge into explicit forms that can be easily shared and communicated. In the context of capturing knowledge for newly hired nurses, hospitals can employ various techniques. This includes developing comprehensive documentation, such as policies and procedures manuals, guidelines, and protocols, which explicitly outline the best practices for patient care. Standardized forms and templates can be created to facilitate the recording and sharing of critical information. Utilizing technology solutions like electronic health record systems and knowledge repositories can further support the externalization process by providing accessible platforms for nurses to access and contribute to the knowledge base.


Combination involves the process of consolidating and integrating explicit knowledge from various sources to create new insights and perspectives. In hospitals, this can be achieved through knowledge-sharing platforms, such as intranets or online collaboration tools. These platforms can serve as repositories of documented knowledge, research articles, case studies, and best practice guidelines. Regular knowledge sharing sessions, such as presentations, seminars, and workshops, can be organized to foster interdisciplinary discussions and promote the exchange of ideas and experiences (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 2021). By combining explicit knowledge from diverse sources, hospitals can facilitate innovation and continuous improvement in patient care practices.


Internalization focuses on the individual’s ability to internalize explicit knowledge and make it part of their personal tacit knowledge. For capturing knowledge in hospitals, it is essential to provide opportunities for newly hired nurses to apply and practice the learned knowledge in a real clinical setting. This can be accomplished through preceptorship programs, on-the-job training, and simulation exercises. Encouraging reflective practices, such as debriefing sessions or journaling, can help nurses internalize and refine their knowledge through self-reflection and experiential learning. Additionally, creating a supportive learning culture that encourages sharing and feedback can facilitate the internalization process.

Process of Sharing Knowledge through Social Interaction and Observation

Sharing knowledge through social interaction and observation involves creating opportunities for nurses to learn from one another in a collaborative environment. This can be achieved by fostering a culture of open communication, encouraging teamwork and peer support, and promoting a learning-oriented mindset. Hospitals can implement shadowing programs, where newly hired nurses can observe experienced nurses in their daily patient care activities. Regular debriefing sessions and case discussions can facilitate the sharing of insights and lessons learned. Additionally, utilizing technologies like video-based training or virtual reality simulations can enhance the observation and learning experience, enabling nurses to gain practical knowledge by observing and reflecting on real-life scenarios.

Process of Making Tacit Knowledge Explicit

Making tacit knowledge explicit requires a systematic approach to identify, capture, and document the implicit knowledge held by experienced nurses. Hospitals can conduct knowledge interviews, where subject matter experts are engaged in structured conversations to extract tacit knowledge. These interviews can be complemented by techniques such as storytelling, where nurses share their experiences and the underlying rationale for their decision-making. The captured tacit knowledge can then be transformed into explicit knowledge through documentation, creating standardized procedures, and developing training materials. It is important to provide platforms and tools that facilitate the documentation and sharing of tacit knowledge, ensuring that valuable insights and experiences are captured and made accessible to the entire nursing staff.


Implementing a comprehensive strategy for capturing knowledge using the SECI model is crucial for hospitals to enhance learning and ensure consistent delivery of quality care. By focusing on socialization, externalization, combination, and internalization, hospitals can create an environment conducive to knowledge sharing, learning, and continuous improvement. Sharing knowledge through social interaction and observation fosters collaboration, while making tacit knowledge explicit enables effective knowledge transfer. By implementing these strategies, hospitals can support newly hired nurses in acquiring essential knowledge and skills, ultimately improving patient care outcomes.


Davenport, T. H., & Prusak, L. (2019). Working knowledge: How organizations manage what they know. Harvard Business Press.

Nonaka, I., & Takeuchi, H. (2021). The knowledge-creating company: How Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. Oxford University Press.

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